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August 11, 2022updated 26 Aug 2022 7:02am

Top tweets: Reductions in dietary fat alter brain reward circuitry – and more

Clinical Trials Arena lists five of the top tweets on metabolic disorders in Q2 2022 based on data from GlobalData’s Pharmaceuticals Influencer Platform.

The top tweets are based on total engagements (likes and retweets) received on tweets from more than 97 metabolic disorders experts tracked by GlobalData’s Pharmaceuticals Influencer platform during the second quarter (Q2) of 2022.

1. Kevin Dennis Hall’s tweet on reductions in dietary fat altering brain reward circuitry

Kevin Dennis Hall, senior investigator at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), shared a research paper on how brain reward circuitry was altered by dietary fat reductions but not carbohydrate in adults with obesity. A total of eight males and nine female weight-stable adults with obesity had functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging at baseline and completed at least one of two 14-day visits to the Metabolic Research Unit at the NIH Clinical Centre.

Results of the study found that reduction of dietary fat (RF), but not carbohydrate (RC), decreased dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potential (D2BP) and decreased neural activity to food cues in brain reward regions. Furthermore, ad libitum food intake after the RF diet shifted to foods high in both fat and carbohydrates compared to the RC diet. These results indicated that dietary fat restrictions increases tonic dopamine in brain reward regions, thereby affecting food choices in a manner that it may hinder diet adherence. Therefore, a calorie is not a calorie when it comes to the macronutrient effects on reward circuitry in the human brain, the paper highlighted.

Username: Kevin Hall

Twitter handle: @KevinH_PhD

Likes: 303

Retweets: 81

2. Atanas G. Atanasov’s tweet on ways to keep the body younger

Atanas G. Atanasov, principal investigator of Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Digital Health and Patient Safety (LBI-DHPS) at the Medical University of Vienna, shared a thread on ways to keep the body younger. Age depends on factors such as genes, lifestyle, and living conditions, the article detailed. Additionally, about 80% of the people stated that they felt younger than their age, largely due to the fact that most societies view ageing negatively, according to Dr Serena Sabatini, postdoctoral research associate at the Università della Svizzera Italiana. Her research highlighted that people who have good role models for ageing, such as active grandparents, aged better themselves. Therefore, staying positive suggested better and healthier ageing, the article noted.

Dr Stacey Lockyer, senior nutrition scientist at the British Nutrition Foundation, on the other hand, stated that there is evidence that shows that diets protect the human body and help manage chronic inflammation and health problems caused by the degeneration of the human body’s cells with age. Therefore, plant-rich diets, such as the Mediterranean style diet and those to restrict hypertension assisted in reducing the risks of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and even death from all causes, the article noted.

Research conducted by Benjamin D. Levine, professor of exercise sciences at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, meanwhile found that starting exercises in middle age could reduce the stiffness of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.

Username: Atanas G. Atanasov

Twitter handle: @_atanas_

Likes: 248

Retweets: 55

3. Prof Kamlesh Khunti’s tweet on the benefits of SGLT2i for treating heart failure

Kamlesh Khunti, a professor of primary care diabetes and vascular medicine at the University of Leicester, the UK, shared a review on the benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) for treating heart failure (HF) irrespective of diabetes diagnosis. The review highlighted that recent clinical studies and meta-analysis have demonstrated that SGLT2i are among the first antidiabetic drugs that can reduce cardiovascular risks related to HF and improve the prognosis of patients with and without diabetes. On the basis of such evidence, several HF guidelines have introduced SGLT2i as a first line of treatment for HF.

According to the American Heart Association’s 2017 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update, the incidence of HF has been increasing and is projected to rise by 46% by 2030. In patients with HF, morbidity and mortality remain high despite developments in therapy, and new treatments are required to improve the diagnosis of these patients, mainly when type 2 diabetes (T2D) is also present, the review highlighted. Interestingly, SGLT2i have been found to target various mechanisms responsible for the HF pathogenesis that go beyond glucose-lowering effects and the metabolic control of diabetes.

Username: Prof Kamlesh Khunti

Twitter handle: @kamleshkhunti

Likes: 147

Retweets: 50

4. Daniel J Drucker’s tweet on US FDA approval of Tirzepatide for type 2 diabetes

Daniel J Drucker, a clinician scientist, shared a press release on the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) having approved Mounjaro (Tirzepatide) injection to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes, as an addition to diet and exercise. Mounjaro was found to be effective in improving blood sugar and effective than other therapies that were evaluated, the release highlighted. Three different doses of Mounjaro (5 mg, 10 mg, and 15mg) were assessed in five clinical trials as a stand-alone therapy or as an addition to other diabetes medicines. Mounjaro’s effectiveness was compared to placebo, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (semagultide), and two long-acting insulin analogues.

On average, patients randomised to receive the maximum recommended dose of Mounjaro (15 mg) showed reduced hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (a measure of blood sugar control) by 1.6% more than placebo when used as separate therapy, and 1.5% more than placebo when used together with a long-acting insulin, the release stated.

Obesity was also a common factor among participants, with an average body mass index of 32 to 34 kgs/height in metres squared reported at the time of enrollment. Among patients randomised to receive the maximum recommended dose, the average weight loss with Mounjaro was 15 pounds more than placebo when neither were used with insulin and 23 pounds more than placebo when both were used with insulin.

Username: Daniel J Drucker

Twitter handle: @DanielJDrucker

Likes: 53

Retweets: 22

5. Asker Jeukendrup’s tweet on the effects of citrulline and arginine on exercise performance

Asker Jeukendrup, a professor of exercise metabolism, shared an article on the role of citrulline and arginine in improving high intensity exercise performance. Nitric oxide (NO) is a very small but important molecule in the human body, say experts, playing a critical role in many processes including the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure among others. Studies have suggested that beetroot juice, a dietary source of nitrate, helps in increasing NO biomarkers, reducing blood pressure, and improving exercise efficiency and tolerance in healthy adults, the article detailed.

A recent study at the University of Exeter examined the role of citrulline and arginine, in which ten healthy adult males completed moderate- and severe-intensity cycling days six and seven of a seven-day supplementation phase with placebo, arginine or citrulline. The performance test involved ten minutes of all-out exercise followed by a sprint in the last 60 seconds, in which the performance was measured as the total amount of activity performed as well as the capacity to sprint at the end.

The study found that both arginine and citrulline led to increased arginine levels in the blood. Meanwhile, blood pressure was lower only with citrulline supplementation but not with arginine. Additionally, citrulline also improved tolerance to high intensity exercise and increased the total amount of activity performed in the exercise performance test. Meanwhile, arginine demonstrated no effects on performance or blood pressure, the article noted.

Username: Asker Jeukendrup

Twitter handle: @Jeukendrup

Likes: 40

Retweets: 9

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