Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a rare and lethal type of cancer, which accounts for a large number of cancer-related deaths.
Disease progression for AML is quick so it is associated with low survival rates and high relapse rates even with treatment. Although AML is more common in the elderly, it can occur in younger patients. The number of diagnosed incident cases of AML in the seven major markets (7MM) of the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, and Japan is expected to increase from 43,592 cases in 2016 to 52,526 cases in 2026 at an annual growth rate (AGR) of 2.05%. Of the 7MM, the US will have the highest number of diagnosed incident cases from 2016–2026.
When comparing AML subtypes acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and secondary AML, including AML with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related characteristics; therapy-related AML; and AML transformed from previous MDS syndrome or leukemia; there is a distinct age-pattern (Figure 1 and Figure 2).
In the 7MM, there were 2,765 diagnosed incident cases of APL. Of thesse, approximately 65% were cases in ages 18–59 years. APL is a unique subtype of AML in that it has an inverse relation with age than other AML subtypes. This trend was consistent in all the 7MM. In contrast, the majority of diagnosed incident cases of secondary AML (nearly 91%) occurred in the population ages 60 years and older.
The projected increase in diagnosed incident cases of AML by 2026 will be driven primarily by population growth and ageing. Population ageing will likely also influence the increase in cases of secondary AML, as it affects the population aged 60 years and older.
Based on changes in population growth and ageing trends, secondary AML is likely to increase in proportion, while APL is likely to decrease comparatively. Therefore the development of more effective therapies, particularly for elderly patients, would improve survival and increase disease prevalence. Further discussions of AML epidemiology can be found in the EpiCast Report: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) – Epidemiology Forecast to 2026 and the EpiCast Model: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) – Epidemiology Forecast to 2026.
The figures below highlights the age patterns associated with the APL and secondary AML in the 7MM in 2016.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: 7MM, Diagnosed Incident Cases of APL, Both Sexes, Ages ≥18 Years, 2016
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: 7MM, Diagnosed Incident Cases of APL, Both Sexes, Ages ≥18 Years, 2016