Eli Lilly and Company has reported that results from the SURPASS-2 clinical trial of tirzepatide showed superior A1C and body weight reductions from baseline in adults with type 2 diabetes.

A novel investigational once-weekly dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1 receptor agonist, tirzepatide combines the actions of both incretins into a single molecule.

The multi-centre, randomised, parallel, open-label trial analysed the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with ≥1500 mg/day metformin alone.

Semaglutide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist for treating type 2 diabetes.

The trial enrolled 1,879 subjects in the US, UK, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Israel and Mexico. They were randomised in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive either a 5mg, 10mg, or 15mg dose of tirzepatide or a 1mg dose of semaglutide.

Data showed that tirzepatide led to superior A1C and body weight reductions from baseline in all three tested doses versus semaglutide in the participants.

The highest dose of tirzepatide reduced A1C by 2.46% and body weight by 12.4kg, while the lowest dose reduced A1C by 2.09% and body weight by 7.8kg as against semaglutide at 1.86% and 6.2kg.

Furthermore, an A1C of less than 5.7% was achieved by 51% in tirzepatide 15mg arm versus 20% in semaglutide arm.

The overall safety profile of tirzepatide was similar to previously reported ones with the most commonly reported adverse events were gastrointestinal-related.

Lilly Diabetes president Mike Mason said: “Nearly nine in ten people with type 2 diabetes in the US are overweight or have obesity, and we are committed to providing solutions that not only lead to meaningful A1C reductions but also significant weight loss to help meet their needs.

“These striking head-to-head results surpassed our expectations, supporting our belief in the value of all three doses of tirzepatide as potential new treatment options for people living with type 2 diabetes.”